Creating "super soldiers" of specific white blood cells to boost an anti-tumour response has been shown in a series of elegant experiments by researchers at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre.
Cancer ranks as a leading cause of death in every country in the world, and, for the first time, female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, overtaking lung cancer, according to a collaborative report, Global Cancer Statistics 2020, from the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data show that 1 in 5 men and women worldwide develop cancer during their lifetime, and 1 in 8 men and 1 in 11 women die from the disease.
There are many mechanisms by which the body responds to foreign invaders. One of these involves the T-cells of the immune system, which have a number of different proteins on their surface called “checkpoint proteins.” These checkpoint proteins bind to proteins on the surface of other cells and can result in either stimulation or suppression of T-cell activity. Normally, surface proteins on foreign or invading cells will produce a stimulation of T-cell activity against these cells, while T-cell suppression is a built-in mechanism to prevent the immune system from attacking the body’s own normal cells.
Researchers at the University of Adelaide have found new evidence about the positive role of androgens in breast cancer treatment with immediate implications for women with estrogen receptor-driven metastatic disease.
A new study suggests a link between toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and the risk of glioma, a type of brain cancer, in adults. The report, appearing in the International Journal of Cancer, finds that people who have glioma are more likely to have antibodies to T. gondii (indicating that they have had a previous infection) than a similar group that was cancer free.
Certain regulatory RNAs are involved in cancer cell movement and metastases. On the right, cancer cells are on the move with long, stiff actin filaments (in green) acting like fingers to help it move. Paxillin (red) collects in patches on the cell’s edge, sticking it to a surface. On the left, cells lacking one such regulatory RNA, MaTAR25, are flat. Actin filaments and paxillin are disrupted (speckles instead of filaments or patches), so cells are unable to move efficiently, reducing their ability to escape a tumor and metastasize. Images: Kung-Chi Chang/Spector lab